WHAT IS REGENERATIVE MEDICINE?
Regenerative Medicine encompasses many medical fields – Orthopedics and Spine Surgery, Sports Medicine, Gynecology, Urology, Oncology, Dermatology, Plastic surgery, Vascular Surgery, Cardiac surgery, etc.
Regenerative Medicine is the branch of medicine that develops methods to regrow, repair or replace damaged or diseased cells, organs or tissues. Regenerative medicine includes the generation and use of therapeutic stem cells, tissue engineering and the production of artificial organs. It uses autologous blood, bone marrow or adipose components to stimulate the body’s own repair processes. A common source for regenerative cells and growth factors are bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), platelet rich plasma (obtained from one’s own blood) and adipose derived stem cells.
An aneurysm is a bulge in the wall of any blood vessel. It’s most often seen in the aorta, the main blood vessel leaving your heart. You can get an aortic aneurysm in your chest, where it’s called thoracic, or your belly, where it’s called abdominal.
Small aneurysms generally pose no threat. But they put you at risk for other problems:
- Plaque deposits may build up where the aneurysm is.
- A clot may form there and then break off and get stuck somewhere else, which could be very dangerous.
- The aneurysm might get bigger and press on other organs, which causes pain.
Because the artery wall is stretched and thinner at the spot of an aneurysm, it’s fragile and could burst under stress, like a balloon. The sudden rupture of an aortic aneurysm can be deadly.
Atherosclerosis and peripheral artery disease.
Coronary arteries supply blood to your heart muscle. Peripheral arteries carry blood to other tissues and organs. Both can have deposits of fat, cholesterol, and other substances on their inside walls called plaque. Over time, plaque can build up, so the vessel becomes narrow and it’s harder for blood to flow. Or a plaque could rupture, blocking blood flow.
Eventually, the artery will be so narrow that your tissues don’t get enough blood. You can have different symptoms and problems, based on where it happens. For example:
- Blockage in coronary arteries can cause chest pain (angina) or a heart attack.
- If it’s in the carotid arteries that supply your brain, it can lead to a stroke or mini stroke, which is called a transient ischemic attack (TIA).
- Blockage in the kidneys can lead to trouble with how they work, uncontrolled high blood pressure, and heart failure.
- A blockage in your leg can lead to leg pain or cramps when you’re active — a condition called claudication — a skin color change, sores or ulcers, and your legs feeling tired.
When you don’t have any blood flow to a part of your body, the tissues could die. If that happens, you may lose a limb or an organ.
Blood clots in veins (VTE)
A blood clot in a vein inside a muscle — usually in your lower leg, thigh, or pelvis — is a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). If the clot breaks loose and travels to your lungs, it becomes a pulmonary embolism (PE). Your doctor may call these clots in your veins venous thromboembolisms, or VTE.
- Conditions that slow blood flow or make blood thicker, such as congestive heart failure and certain tumors
- Damaged valves in a vein
- Damaged veins from an injury or infection
- Genetic disorders that make your blood more likely to clot
- Hormones, such as estrogen from pregnancy and birth control pills
- Long bed rest or not being able to move much
- Surgery, especially some operations on your hips and legs
Damaged vein valves or a DVT can cause long-term blood pooling and swelling in your legs, too. That problem is called chronic venous insufficiency. If you don’t do anything about it, fluid will leak into the tissues in your ankles and feet. Over time, it may make your skin break down and wear away.
Peripheral venous disease and varicose veins
Unlike arteries, veins have flaps inside called valves. When your muscles contract, the valves open, and blood moves through the tubes. When your muscles relax, the valves close so the blood flows in only one direction.
Damaged valves may not close the way they should when your muscles relax. This allows blood to flow in both directions, and it can pool.
This is what happens with varicose veins. They may bulge like purple ropes under your skin. They can also look like small red or purple bursts on your knees, calves, or thighs. These spider veins happen because of swollen small blood vessels called capillaries. After a day of activity, your legs might ache, sting, or swell.
More women than men get varicose veins, and they often run in families. Pregnancy, being very overweight, or standing for long times can cause them.
Because your blood is moving more slowly, it may stick to the sides of your veins, and clots can form.